Society

  • Social structure


The Inca society was perfectly organized. All in the Inca society knew in what position they were occupying. On top were Sapa Inca, or the emperor, and Coya (the queen). They had all the power. Them came the nobles, who often were the priests and realtives of past emperors or the current ones. These two first social groups were the privileges groups. After, there were craftsmen and architects, theywere very high on the social ladder because of the skill that they had was requiered by the Empire. Then came the working class, often just farmers that were kept in their social groupings. After this, wereslaves and peasantsof the society. The craftsmen and the architects had more rights than farmers, slaves and peasants. Only noble children went to school. Here, children learned laws, religion, the art of the war and also they learned quechuan (the Inca lenguage). Peasants gave lessons to his sons. Peasntas went to the army when they were 20 years old. Women peasants' also worked in the land.
Between the Incas, the intention of the government was to promote the mutual help between the subjects. All people was working, excepting the patients, old people and the very young ones. There were not paid the workers by money; all that they were producing was distributed between them by means of a system of tax. The food was preserved in strores to be distributed between the public in the times of shortage.


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  • Family life.


Most of the family of the Andes lived on the land they cultivates, or next to it, forming villages in the mountains. Their houses were built of stone blocks and mud filled the scream. A curtain of skins served to protect the home against the wind.
In Andean homes there were no beds or chairs. The family members slept on mats, putting squat on the floor to eat or work. The mean meal was done at night. It was usually a stew made with potatoes, corn, beans and other similar products, seasoning with strong spices. They also ate roast corn, and sometimes, in indicated occasions, ate guinea pigs.
All family members worked hard. Everyone participated in the work of planting and harvesting. However, there were other jobs apart from them. The women made clothing for the wholo family. Men made shoes as slippers and sandals also for the whole family.



  • Threads and Fabrics.


We have very few samples of Inca’s fabrics; most of them they rotted with the step of the centuries, in the humid climate of the high lands. Nevertheless, guiding by the found fragments we know that the Incas were a few skilful weavers.
All the young women, from very early age were learning to spin and to weave. Also they were devoting themselves to gather plants from which the dyes were extracted by those who were coloring the wool of alpaca. This one was dyed before proceeding to his thread; then, the women were making a few hot soft pieces to the tact, which they were sewed suitably in order to do the cloths.
The fabrics destined for the family of the Inca were an object of major attentions. These pieces were elaborated by professional weavers in collaboration with the “Virgins of the Sun ". These women were using silky wools with brilliant of colors.



  • The Craftsmen and their Works.


In the Inca's epoch, the craftsmen constituted one of the unions most respected of the community. The craftsman was situated in possession of a special skill and was hoping that this one was used in good of all. The State it was busy with feeding him and to his family.
The specialist craftsmen were elaborating only the thinnest objects, not dealing with those of daily use. Unfortunately, there have come to the present day few samples of his works, since the majority of his accomplishments were fused by the Spanish conquerors. It is known, nevertheless, that they had reached a great level of quality. To the precious metals form was given them by means of a patient work of hammering, or they were fusing for the forgotten method of the lost wax.
The potter's wheel was not known by the Incas, so that they were making his vases and jars mounting strips curled of clay, some on others, up to achieving the form needed for his object. The jars and the vases were getting then in an oven, being identical with them geometrical designs that were repeating themselves constant. The used painting was a liquid solution of clay mixed with mineral pigments. Hereby the most common tonalities were tried: the red color, a kind of purple, kind of white and black.
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